Archive for category Main lists

Mixed sources

Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms in ancient texts (From Simonin, A, “Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms in ancient texts”, 2011, available at http://www.ancient.eu.com/article/163/ ) Translations (old ones due to copyrights)

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Litterature: anonymous and administrative

Anonymous, The Peryplus of Erythraean Sea, full text: see 37-49 for from Gedrosia to Barygaza coast:

– (Greek Codex of the Xth century) (Greek Codex of the Xth century) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

– (Translation: Schoff, W, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea : travel and trade in the Indian Ocean, New York, 1912) (Translation)

– (Translation: De la Gravière, J, Commerce de l’Orient sous les règnes d’Auguste et Claude, 1883) (Text an translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

Aï Khanum philosophical papyrus (Extract from Rapin, C, La Trésorerie du palais hellénistique d’Aï Khanoum. L’Apogée et la chute du royaume grec de Bactriane (Fouilles d’Aï Khanoum VIII, Mémoires de la Délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan 33), Paris 1992, p. 115-121.). Text, translation, commentaries.   

Asangorna parchment (Extract from Rapin, C, “Nouvelles observations sur le parchemin gréco-bactrien d’Asangôrna”, in “De Bactres à Taxila: Nouvelles données de géographie historique”, from P. Bernard, F. Grenet, C. Rapin, Topoi, 1996-2, p. 458-469.).  Text, translation.   

Amphipolis parchment and another partially preserved inscription (From Clarysse, W, Thompson, D. J, ” Two Greek texts on skin from Hellenistic Bactria”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, n° 159 (2007), p. 273-279.) Text, translation and commentaries. 

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Litterature: known authors

Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, XVIII.7: revolt of the Greeks of Bactria in 323 B.C. (Translation: Hoefer, F, La Bibliothèque historique de Diodore de Sicile, vol. IV, Hachette, Paris 1865) (Text and translation). 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

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Fan Ye, Hou HanShu, 88 (The Western Regions): cf. 8-18 about Arachosia, Kushans, India, Parthians, Romans and Sogdians, (Translation: Hill, J. E, 2003, available at http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/hou_han_shu.html. (Translation)  

——–

HanShu, cf. VII (Notes on the Western Regions) about Kushans, Sogdians, Parthians, Ferghana and Wusun, (Translation: Wylie, A, Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vols. III (1874), p. 401-452, V (1876), p. 41-80, and X (1881), pp. 20-73, and XI (1882), p. 83-115). (Translation)  
———–

Justin, Historiarum Philippicarum, XLI: Greco-Bactrians and Parthians from Diodotos to Eucratides

Latin text (Text)

(Translation: Arnauld-Lindet, M.-P, 2003) (Text and translation)

(Translation: Pierrot, Jules, Trogue Pompée, Traduction nouvelle, Paris 1833) (Text and translation)

(Translation: Watson, J. S, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, London 1853) (Text and translation)

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Plutarch, On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great, I.5: Greek litterature in Asia (Translation: Bétolaud, V, Oeuvres complètes de Plutarque – Oeuvres morales, Vol.II , Paris 1870.) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

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Polybius, Histories, X.49: Battle of Arius river between Antiochus III and Euthydemus in 209 B.C. (Translation: Bouchot, F, Histoire de Polybe, vol. II, Charpentier, Paris 1847) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

Polybius, Histories, XI.34: Siege of Bactria by Antiochus III in 209-206 B.C. and the end of its Anabasis (Translation: Bouchot, F, Histoire de Polybe, vol. II, Charpentier, Paris 1847) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

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Strabo, Geographica, XI.9.2: Parthians and Bactria (Translation: Tardieu, A, Géographie de Strabon. Vol.III, Paris 1909) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

Strabo, Geographica, XI.11.1: On Bactria and Sogdia (Translation: Tardieu, A, Géographie de Strabon. Vol.III, Paris 1909) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

Strabo, Geographica, XI.11.2: On Greco-Bactrian kings (Translation: Tardieu, A, Géographie de Strabon. Vol.III, Paris 1909) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg
Strabo, Geographica, XI.11.3: On life of the Bactrians and Sogdians (Translation: Tardieu, A, Géographie de Strabon. Vol.III, Paris 1909) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg
Strabo, Geographica, XI.11.4: Alexander in Sogdia (Translation: Tardieu, A, Géographie de Strabon. Vol.III, Paris 1909) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg
Strabo, Geographica, XI.11.5: Rivers of Bactria and Sogdia (Translation: Tardieu, A, Géographie de Strabon. Vol.III, Paris 1909) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

Strabo, Geographica, XV.1.3: Who went the furthest? Alexander or Eucratides? (Translation: Tardieu, A, Géographie de Strabon. Vol.III, Paris 1909) (Text and translation) 120px-Greek_lc_alpha_svg

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Epigraphic sources

Greek ones

Tax receipt presumably from Aï Khanum (From Hollis, A. S, Rea, J. R, Senior, R. C, “A tax receipt from Hellenistic Bactria”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, n°104 (1994), p.261–280.) gb

One exemple of economic inscription from Aï Khanum (Extract from Rapin, C, La Trésorerie du palais hellénistique d’Aï Khanoum. L’Apogée et la chute du royaume grec de Bactriane (Fouilles d’Aï Khanoum VIII, Mémoires de la Délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan 33), Paris 1992, p. 107-108.) Text and translation.  

All economic inscriptions from Aï Khanum (From Grenet, F, Rapin, C, “Inscriptions économiques de la trésorerie hellénistique d’Aï Khanoum. L’onomastique iranienne à Aï Khanoum”, Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, n° 107-1 (1983), p. 315-381. Text, translation, commentaries.  

Baghlan inscription of Kanishka (From Habibi, A.H, The Two Thousand Years Old Language of Afghanistan or The Mother of Dari Language (An Analysis of the Baghlan Inscription), Kabul, 1967.) Text, translation and commentaries.

Dedication of Triballos and Strato // Temenos of Kineas and Delphic maxims of Ai Khanum (From Robert, L, “De Delphes à l’Oxus, inscriptions grecques nouvelles de la Bactriane”, Comptes-rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, n°112-3 (1968), p. 416-457.) Text, translation, commentaries.   

Funerary Epigram of Sophytos // Heliodotos dedication to Hestia (From Bernard, P, Pinault, G-J, Rougemont, G, “Deux nouvelles inscriptions grecques de l’Asie centrale”, Journal des Savants, n°2-2 (2004), p. 227-356. Text, translation, commentaries.   

Funerary Epigram of Sophytos (From Mairs, R, “Sopha Grammata: Greek Acrostichs in Inscriptions from Arachosia, Lower Nubia and Libya,” in Kwapisz, J, Petrain, D and Szymanski, M. (edits.), The Muse at Play: Riddles and Wordplay in Greek and Latin Poetry, Berlin (forthcoming), p. 277-304.). Text, translation, brief commentaries.  

Rabatak inscription of Kanishka (From Sims-Williams, N, “Nouveaux documents sur l’histoire et la langue de la Bactriane”, Comptes-rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, n°140-2 (1996), p. 633-654) Text, translation and commentaries.

 

Indian ones

Heliodoros dedication on Bešnagar pillar (Extract from Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (1908-1909), Calcutta 1912.). Translation only.   

Ašoka Edicts on pillars: Delhi and Allahabad pillars (Extract from de Cunningham, A, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of Asoka. Vol. I, Calcutta 1877, p. 137-140.). Translation only.  

Ašoka Edicts on rocks  (Extract from de Cunningham, A, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of Asoka. Vol. I, Calcutta 1877, p. 117-126). Translation only.   

Bhagamoya inscription of Apraca kings (From Fussman, G, “Nouvelles inscriptions saka (II)”, Bulletin de l’Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient, n°73 (1984), p. 31-46.). Text, translation and commentaries.

Kharavela inscrption, king of Kalinga, in the Hathigumpha caves  (Extract from Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XX, Delhi 1929-30, p. 86-89.). Translation only.  

Rudradaman inscription at Junagadh  (Extract from Epigraphia Indica, Vol.VIII, Calcutta 1905-6, p. 45-49). Translation only.  

 

Multilingual ones

Trilingual Kushan inscription at Dašt-e Nāwur (From Fussman, G, “Documents épigraphiques kouchans”, Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême Orient, n°LXI (1974), p.1-66.). Text, translation and commentaries.  

 

Other languages

Runic inscription from Aï Khanum (Extract from Rapin, C, La Trésorerie du palais hellénistique d’Aï Khanoum. L’Apogée et la chute du royaume grec de Bactriane (Fouilles d’Aï Khanoum VIII, Mémoires de la Délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan 33), Paris 1992, p. 139-142). Text only.  

Afrasiab inscription in Sogdian (From Grenet, F, « La plus ancienne inscription sogdienne », in Compareti, M, Raffetta, P, Scarcia, G. (edit.), Êrân ud Anêrân. Studies presented to Boris Ilich Marshak on the occasion of his 70th birthday, Venise 2006, p. 223-230.). Text, translation and commentaries.

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Reviews

Allen, K. H, “Tsetskhladze, G. R. (edit.): Ancient West and East, Vol. 1 N°1”, 2003, available at http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2003/2003-08-09.html 

Bailey, C, “De Rossi, F.C: Iscrizioni dello Estremo Oriente Greco. Un repertorio. Inschriften griechischer Städte aus Kleinasien”, 2005, available at http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2005/2005-10-13.html 

Bracey, R, “Allchin, R. et ali: Gandharan Art In Context: East-West Exchanges At The Crossroads Of Asia”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/gaic.htm

Bracey, R,  “Errington, E, Cribb, J, The Crossroads of Asia:Transformation in Image and Symbol”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/coa.htm

Bracey, R “Gupta, P. L, Kulashreshtha, S: Kusana coins and history”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/kch.htm

Bracey, R, “Harmatta, J: History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol II, The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700BC to AD250”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/hcca.htm.

Bracey, R, “Jain, R: Ancient Indian coinage”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/aic.htm 

Bracey, R, “Khan, A: Ancient, medieval and recent history and coins of Pakistan”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/amrhcp.htm

Bracey, R, “Liu, X: Ancient India and Ancient China, Trade and Religious Exchanges AD1-600”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/aiaac.php

Bracey, R, “Marian, W: Echoes of Alexander the great: Silk Route portraits from Gandhara”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/eagsrpg.htm 

Bracey, R, “Mathur, S: Art and culture under the Kushans”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/artandculture.htm

Bracey, R, “Nikonorov, V. P: The armies of Bactria”, available at http://www.kushan.org/reviews/taob.htm

Bracey, R, “Parasher, A: Mlecchas in Early India”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/mlecchas.htm

Bracey, R, “Singh, A. K: Coins of the Great Kushans”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/cotgk.htm 

Bracey, R, “Shrava, S: The dated Kushan inscriptions”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/dki.htm

Bracey, R, “Tanabe, K: Silk Road Coins: The Hiryama Collection”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/srcthc.htm 

Bracey, R, “Tanabe, K. et ali: Studies In Silk Road Coins And Culture”, available at http://kushan.org/reviews/sisrcac.htm 

Chin, M, “Review of Texts of Greek and Latin authors on the Far East : from the 4th c. B.C.E. to the 14th c. C.E.: texts compiled by George Coedès; texts revised and translated by John Sheldon”, ?, ?, p. 11-4. gb

De Callataÿ, F, “Frank Lee HOLT,Into the Land of Bones. Alexander the Great in Afghanistan, Berkeley-Los Angeles-Londres“, Topoi, n°14, p. 519-521.

De Callataÿ, F, “Review of F. L. Holt, Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions, Berkeley-Los Angeles-Londres, 2004“, L’Antiquité classique, n°74 (2005), p. 480-483.

De Callataÿ, F, “Review of O. MØRKHOLM, Early Hellenistic Coinage. From the accession of Alexander to the peace of Apamea (336-188 B.C.), Cambridge, 1991“, in L’Antiquité Classique, n°64 (1995), p. 439-441.

De Rossi, F.C, “Coloru, O: Da Alessandro a Menandro: il regno greco di Battriana”, 2010, available at http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2010/2010-10-33.html 

Doyen, J.-M, “Review of P. BERNARD Fouilles d’Aï Khanoum IV Les monnaies hors trésors. Questions dhistoire greco-bactrienne Paris 1985“, Bulletin du Cercle d’Etudes Numismatiques, n°23-3 (1986), p. 59-61.

Fear, A.T, “Sidky, H: The Greek kingdom of Bactria”, 2001, available at http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2001/2001-04-07.html 

Fischer-Bossert, W, “Osmund Bopearachchi and Philippe Flandrin. Le Portrait d’Alexandre le Grand: Histoire d’une découverte pour l’humanité”, 2006, available at http://ansmagazine.com/Summer06/Portrait

Fussman, G, “B. N. Mukherjee : Nanâ on lion, a study in Kushana numismatic art “, Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient, n°58 (1971), p. 299-302.

Ginoux, N, “Francfort, H.-P. et al, L’art d’Afghanistan, de la préhistoire à nos jours, CEREDAF 2006”, 2008, available at http://histara.sorbonne.fr/cr.php?cr=56&lang=fr. gf

Lendering, J, “Holt, F.L: Into the Land of Bones. Alexander the Great in Afghanistan”, 2005, available at http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2005/2005-08-35.html

Lhuillier, J, « Pierre Leriche et Chakirjan Pidaev, Termez sur Oxus. Cité-capitale d’Asie centrale », Cahiers d’Asie centrale, n°19-20 (2011), online edition, available at http://asiecentrale.revues.org/index1531.html, p. 497-499.

Shenkar, M, “On the temple of Oxus in Bactria, III (Review article of Litvinskiy)“, Studia Iranica n°41 (2012), p. 135-142.

Swanick, S, “Review of Encyclopaedia Iranica (EIr), The Charleston Advisor, n°13-4 (2012), p. 11-14. gb

Wood, R., “Review of Frank L. Holt, Lost World of the Golden King: In Search of Ancient Afghanistan”, 2013, available at http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2013/2013-07-06.html.  gb

Yoon, D, “Review of Frank Holt and Osmund Bopearachchi: The Alexander Medallion: Exploring the Origins of a Unique Artefact“, ANS Magazine 11.2, p. 56-57. gb

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Maps

Map of Bactria (made by Rapin, C.)

Map of Alexander’s campaigns in Bactria (made by Rapin, C.)

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Definitions (small articles form)

Ashraf, A, “Iranian identity II: pre-Islamic period”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2006, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/iranian-identity-ii-pre-islamic-period.

Azarpay, G, ” Art in Iran IV. Pre-Islamic Eastern Iran and Central Asia”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1986 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/art-in-iran-iv-pre-islamic-eastern-iran-and-central-asia.

Bahrami, K, “Kuh-e Khwajeh”, 2007, available at http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Archaeology/Ashkanian/khuh_e_khwajeh.htm 

Ball, W, « Excavations II. In Afghanistan », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/excavations-ii.

Balland, D, De Planhol, X, Tarzi, Z, « Bamian », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1988, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/bamian-town-in-central-afghanistan.

Balland, D, Bivar, A. D. H, De Planhol, X, « Baglan », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1988 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/baglan-district-and-town-of-afghanistan.

Bates, M, Gignoux, P, « Dinar », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1995, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/dinar.

Bernard, P, « Delbarjin », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1994, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/delbarjin.

Bivar, A. D. H, « Demetrius, name of two Greco-Bactrian kings », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1994, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/demetrius.

Bivar, A. D. H, “Gondophares”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2002, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/gondophares.

Bivar, A. D. H, « Kushan dynasty. I. Dynastic history,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2009, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/kusan-dynasty-i-history.

Bopearachchi, O, “Diodotus”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1995, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/diodotus.

Bopearachchi, O, « Heliocles Ier»,Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2003, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/heliocles-i.

Bopearachchi, O, « Indo-Greek dynasty », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2004, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/indo-greek-dynasty.

Bosworth, C. E, De la Vaissière, E, Sims-Williams, N, « Jabguya », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2007, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/jabguya.

Bosworth, C. E, Marshak, B. I, “Fargana”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1999, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/fargana.

Briant, P, « Alexander the Great », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1985 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/alexander-the-great-356-23-bc.

Brunner, C. J, “Abdagases”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1982, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/abdagases-great-king-of-the-pahlava-dynasty-in-drangiana-arachosia-gandhara.

Brunner, C, J, « Aspasii », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1987 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aspasii-one-of-the-tribal-people-encountered-by-alexander-the-great-in-gandhara-327-26-b.

Callieri, P, « India IV. Relations : Seleucid, Parthian, Sassanian periods », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2004, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india-iv-relations.

Carter, M. L, « Begram », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1989, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/begram-the-site-of-ancient-kapisa-is-located-80.

Carter, M. L, « Chinese-Iranian relations XIV. The influence of Eastern Iranian art », Online Edition, 2005, available at http://www.iranica.com/articles/chinese-iranian-xiv.

Chaumont, M. L , « Apollodorus of Artimita », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1986 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/apollodorus-of-artimita-historian.

De Blois, F, Vogelsang, W, « Dahae », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1993, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dahae.

Frye, R. N., « Central Asia III. In Pre-Islamic Times”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1992, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/central-asia-iii.

Frye, R. N, “Commerce III. In the Parthian and Sassanian periods”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1992, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/commerce-iii

Fussman, G, « Dašt-e Nawor », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1994, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dast-e-nawor.

Gignoux, P, “Dirham”, ? , available at http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Economy/dirham.htm 

Grenet, F, “Drapsaka”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1995, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/drpsaka.

Grenet, F, “Mithra II. Iconography in Iran and Central Asia », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2006, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/mithra-2-iconography-in-iran-and-central-asia.

Grenet, F, Leriche, P, “Bactria”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1988 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bactria.

Hansman, J, « Antioch (2) », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1986 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/antioch-2-name-given-to-a-number-of-seleucid-foundations.

Huyse, P, “Epigraphy II. Greek inscriptions from ancient Iran”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/epigraphy-ii.

J’afari, M.A.A, “An introduction to Holy Avesta”, 2004, available at http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Religions/iranian/Zarathushtrian/avesta_introduction.htm 

Jâvid-Moshref, R, “Balkh”, ? , available at http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Geography/balkh.htm

Kawami, T, “Clothing III. In the Arsacid period”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1992, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/clothing-iii

Kerr, S, “Kharosthi script”, 2011, available at http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Languages/kharoshti_script.htm 

Keene, M, « Jade II. Pre-Islamic Iranian Jades », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/jade-ii.

Leriche, P, « Alexandria », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1985 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/alexandria-general-designation-of-cities-whose-foundation-is-credited-to-alexander-the-great-356-23-b.

Litvinsky, B. A, « Helmet I. In Pre-Islamic Iran”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2003, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/helmet-i.

Litvinsky, B. A, « Gandharan art », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2005, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/gandharan-art.

Litvinsky, B. A, “Battle-axes in Eastern Iran”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/battle-axes

Litvinsky, B. A, « Buddhism IV. Buddhist sites in Afghanistan and Central Asia”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/buddhism-iv.

Litvinsky, B. A, « Shield in Eastern Iran », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/shield-eastern-iran.  

Lurje, P, “Keš”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2009, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kes-ancient-city.

Mac Dowall, D. W, « Azes », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1988 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/azes.

Mac Dowall, D. W, « Azilises », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1988 (updated in 2011), available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/azilises.

Mac Dowall, D. W, « Heraus », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2004, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/heraus.

MacKenzie, D. N, « Eran, Eranšahr », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1998, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/eran-eransah.

Nazmi-Afshar, M.S, “Anâhita”, ?, available at http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Religions/iranian/anahita.htm 

Nehru, L, “Khalchayan”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2006, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/khalchayan.

P’yankov, I. V, « Cyropolis », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1993, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/cyropolis-latin-form-of-gr.

Potts, D. T, “Indian Ocean”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2004 (updated in 2012), available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/indian-ocean.

Pugachenkova, G. A, « Dal’verzin Tepe », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1993, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dalverzin-tepe.

Salomon, R, « Gandhari language », Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2008, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/gandhari-language .

Rapin, C, « Greece VIII. Greek art in Central Asia, Afghanistan and Northwest India”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2002, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/greece-viii.

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